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Administración del sistema Python – PythonForBeginners.com

Visión general

El módulo del sistema operativo en Python proporciona una forma de utilizar el sistema operativo dependiente
funcionalidad.

Las funciones que proporciona el módulo OS le permiten interactuar con el
sistema operativo subyacente en el que se ejecuta Python. (Windows, Mac o
Linux.

Puede encontrar información importante sobre su ubicación o sobre el proceso.

Antes de comenzar, asegúrese de haber importado el módulo del sistema operativo “importar sistema operativo

Explicación de las funciones del sistema operativo

os.system()	# Executing a shell command

os.stat()	# Get the status of a file

os.environ()    # Get the users environment

os.chdir()   	# Move focus to a different directory

os.getcwd()    	# Returns the current working directory

os.getgid()    	# Return the real group id of the current process

os.getuid()    	# Return the current process’s user id

os.getpid()     # Returns the real process ID of the current process

os.getlogin()   # Return the name of the user logged

os.access()   	# Check read permissions

os.chmod()    	# Change the mode of path to the numeric mode

os.chown()   	# Change the owner and group id

os.umask(mask)  # Set the current numeric umask

os.getsize()   	# Get the size of a file

os.environ()    # Get the users environment

os.uname()   	# Return information about the current operating system

os.chroot(path) # Change the root directory of the current process to path

os.listdir(path)# List of the entries in the directory given by path

os.getloadavg() # Show queue averaged over the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes

os.path.exists()# Check if a path exists

os.walk()   	# Print out all directories, sub-directories and files

os.mkdir(path)	# Create a directory named path with numeric mode mode

os.remove(path)	# Remove (delete) the file path

os.rmdir(path)  # Remove (delete) the directory path

os.makedirs(path)# Recursive directory creation function

os.removedirs(path) # Remove directories recursively

os.rename(src, dst) # Rename the file or directory src to dst

Ejemplos de funciones del sistema operativo

Comencemos para ver cómo podemos usar estas funciones del sistema operativo.

#Get current working directory with os.getcwd()
print os.getcwd()

#Get the status of a file with os.stat()
print "Getting the status of: ", os.stat('/usr/bin/python')

#Execute a shell command with os.system()
os.system('ls -l')

#Return the current process id with os.getpid()
print os.getpid()
os.chmod(path, mode)

#Change the owner and group id of path to the numeric uid and gid with os.chown()
os.chown(path, uid, gid)

#Processes in the system run queue averaged over the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes
print os.getloadavg()

#Check if a path exists with os.path.exists()
if os.path.exists("file.txt"):

#Create a new directory named 'new_directory' if it doesn't exist already"
os.path.exists("new_directory") or os.mkdir("new_directory")

#Check if the path is a directory or a file with os.path.isdir() & os.path.isfile()
path = "/tmp"
if os.path.isdir(path): print "That's a directory"
if os.path.isfile(path): print "That's a file"

#Create a directory with os.makedir()
print os.mkdir('new_directory', 0666)

#Recursive create directories with os.makedirs()
os.makedirs('dir_a/dir_b/dir_c')

#Remove a directory with os.rmdir()
print os.rmdir('directory')

#Recursively remove empty directories with os.rmdirs()
os.removedirs('dir_a/dir_b/dir_c')

#Rename a file with os.rename()
print os.rename('/path/to/old/file', '/path/to/new/file')

#Rename a file with shutil.move()
print shutil.move('/path/to/old/file', '/path/to/new/file')

#Rename a file with shutil.copy()
print shutil.copy('/path/to/old/file', '/path/to/new/file')

#Get the users home directory
print os.path.expanduser('~')

#Check read permissions with os.access()
path="/tmp/file.txt"
print os.access(path, os.R_OK)

#Get the users environment with os.environmen()
home =  os.environ['HOME']
print home

#Move focus to a different directory with os.chdir()
print os.chdir('/tmp')

#Print out all directories, sub-directories and files with os.walk()
for root, dirs, files in os.walk("/tmp"):
    print root
    print dirs
    print files

#Get the last time a directory was accessed with os.path.getatime()
os.path.getatime('/tmp')

#Get the last time a directory was modified with os.path.getmtime()
os.path.getmtime('/tmp')

#Get the user ID with os.getuid()
if os.getuid() != 0: print "you are not root"

#Get the group ID with os.getgid()
print os.getgid()

#Return the name of the user logged in with os.getlogin()
print os.getlogin()

#Returns a list of all files in a directory with os.listdir()
for filename in os.listdir("/tmp"):
    print "This is inside /tmp", filename

#Get the size of a file with os.path.getsize()
path.getsize("/tmp/file.txt")

Usar Python en su trabajo diario es una buena manera de automatizar las tareas de administración del sistema, cuando siente que sus scripts de shell son demasiado limitados.

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